Are we the generation to eliminate one of the biggest killers in human history?Read More
April 25th marks World Malaria Day, a day dedicated to promoting the global efforts to understand and control Malaria – one of the biggest killers in human history. A disease so deadly, some researchers believe it may be responsible for the deaths of almost half of all people who have ever lived.
Caused by different forms of the Plasmodium parasite, there are four types of this life-threatening disease of varying severities. In its most serious form it can affect the kidneys and brain, causing anaemia, coma and death. Malaria is present in over 90 countries and roughly half of the population is currently at risk of catching the disease, with the greatest burden being in the least developed areas where there is very limited access to life-saving preventions, diagnoses and treatments.
How is malaria spread?
It is quite fitting that this lethal disease is transmitted to people through the deadliest animal on the planet – the mosquito. The Mosquito itself does not benefit from transmitting the malaria parasite, it is merely the disease vector – but, having survived for hundreds of millennia, with a population in the trillions and the ability to lay hundreds of eggs at a time, it’s an organism that certainly makes a very effective carrier.
A mosquito bite is simply the beginning of the process for the plasmodium sporozoites (an immature form of the parasite), which have accumulated in the mosquitos’ salivary glands, ready to be released into your body once your skin has been penetrated. This is where the human infection begins, and the sporozoites parasitize the liver, where they appear dormant as they mature and multiply to merozoites. The cells they inhabit eventually erupt and the merozoites are released into the bloodstream, cunningly disguising themselves with the liver cell membranes to avoid an immune attack. This is where they begin their second assault, causing red blood cells to erupt and release toxins that stimulate an immune response – it is this that leads you to experience flu-like symptoms such as fever. In severe cases, if the blood-brain barrier is breached, this can lead to a coma, neurological damage or even death.
The current situation
There have been large-scale efforts to eradicate malaria in the last 75 years. For example, during the WHO’s anti-malarial campaign in the 1950s and 60s DDT was used which, at the time, was hailed as kryptonite to mosquitoes. Bill Gates has famously stated that the world’s fight against malaria is one of the greatest success stories in the history of human health, and yes, over the last couple of decades there certainly has been a significant decline in the global burden of malaria. In fact, since 2000, almost 60 countries have seen a drop of at least 75% in new malaria cases, contributing to a 37% drop globally. However, the 2016 WHO report shows that in 2015 alone more than 400,000 people died of malaria and 214 million were infected. So, the job is far from finished.
Target Malaria – a new approach
There have been remarkable advances in gene-editing technologies in recent years, so one of the main focuses in malaria research lies in exploring different strategies to reduce or modify the populations of Anopheles mosquitoes; specifically, the three species in this genus that are responsible for most of the malaria transmission in Africa. Target Malaria is a not-for-profit research consortium that aims to develop and share technology for malaria control. Their focus is reducing the number of the deadliest malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in Africa – Anopheles gambiae. Specifically, they are interested in targeting female mosquitoes, as these are the only ones that bite, and this is an effective approach to control population size. Target Malaria are investigating the potential of using nuclease enzymes, that cut specific sequences of DNA, to modify mosquito genes. By changing certain genes, malarial resistance, female infertility and almost exclusively male offspring can be induced. The researchers are inserting genes that code for these enzymes into mosquito eggs, with the hope of affecting their reproduction. An example of this research involves nucleases that cut the X chromosome while males are making their sperm, resulting in mainly male offspring. Alongside this, researchers are also investigating how to disrupt the fertility of female mosquitoes to reduce the number of offspring, as well as engineering mosquitoes that are unable to transmit malaria.
These scientists are utilising a method called ‘gene drive’, a powerful emerging technology that is able to override genetic rules to ensure all offspring acquire a trait, as opposed to just, half as would normally be the case, allowing the trait to be spread extremely quickly.
Nowhere are the devastating effects of malaria as obvious as in sub-Saharan Africa, where hundreds of thousands fall victim each year, making up 90% of the total mortality count for the disease. Target Malaria researchers are currently working in Mali, Uganda and Burkina Faso with Bana, a small village in Burkina Faso, having the potential to be the site of a revolutionary genetic experiment. At Imperial College London, gene drive mosquitoes are being designed to have reduced female offspring or the inability to reproduce in general, and are then planned to be released into the wild in Bana. Their hope is that this would nearly eradicate Anopheles gambiae, to a point sufficient to prevent malaria transmission.
So what are we waiting for?
For one thing, the communities need to be prepared for the release. Firstly, there needs to be education, not just regarding genetic engineering and the impact the release will have, but also basic genetics – which may be a challenge in a community where there is no equivalent term, even for the word gene. Additionally, there are still years before scientists will be able to fully develop test gene drive mosquitoes in this manner.
If an experiment of this type is successful in the future, not only could this essentially eradicate malaria, but it could also pave the way for eliminating other mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever or even other insect-transmitted diseases like Lyme disease. However, humans have never before changed the genetic code of a free-living organism on this scale and released it into the wild. This genetic-engineering technology is very powerful and definitely needs to be treated as such. But, with millions dying and suffering at the hands of malaria each year, should we look to do this sooner rather than later?
What do you think? Could we be the generation that ends one of the oldest and deadliest diseases in human history? Tweet me your thoughts @PranikaAtNotch.
To placement, or not to placement? Insights that can help you answer the questionRead More
Placements. Internships. Years in industry. They’re a chance to gain some invaluable experience and learn new skills that, in the future, could propel your career forward. That’s what your Mum, Dad and lecturers will tell you. Of course they are spot on, but there is a lot more to it than that.
I’m currently on placement here at Notch Communications, as part of my Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Manchester. Since my time on placement is coming to a close, I thought I’d give a little insight into what I’ve learnt along the way – from surviving the applications process to getting used to the big wide world of work.
1. Please, don’t panic!
I’ve been there. Your genius friend has managed to get a prestigious lab placement in the USA with a cracking pay and it is only the beginning of October. You, on the other hand, have no idea what you’re doing. You’re still getting to grips with your lectures, you have deadlines due and you’re working on your CV all whilst being bamboozled by the numerous emails featuring placement opportunities. It can all get a bit much. My top tip? Don’t rush. It is very easy to succumb to the pressure and try to get a placement as soon as possible. The application process is competitive but don’t panic and apply for simply anything you come across. One quality application to the right company is far better than sending lots of rushed applications to companies that, with hindsight, you’re actually not that interested in. Do your research, read up about the company and work out if you’d actually enjoy the placement on offer. Don’t worry about being left placement less. Plenty of students find placements a couple of days before summer starts or even self-arrange!
2. Consider the little things
The skills and experience you gain from a year in industry will stick with you for the rest of your career, but work isn’t the be all and end all. You should think about what else you’ll get up to over the 9 months (or more!) you’re on placement. You’ll be leaving behind the familiarity of university life, perhaps moving to a new city or country and living with people you don’t know. All of this is extremely exciting with so many new opportunities being thrown your way. It can also be a little daunting, and that’s ok – just make sure you’ve considered the other aspects before diving into the unknown! I initially wanted to go anywhere abroad – Australia, USA or as far away as possible! Alas, it didn’t work out for me, but with hindsight I’m so glad I’ve stayed in Manchester. I think I’ve adapted to my placement with such ease because my life outside work is great too. I’ve been able to live with my fab university chums (I don’t have to miss them and watch them graduate without me!) and with the free evenings that come as a result of the 9-5 life I’ve been able to throw myself into the university societies that are still on my door step – kickboxing and women’s rugby league! If I’d ventured further afield I know my placement experience could have been very, very different. I’m more than happy with how things turned out for me and I don’t think the work/play balance could be much better.
3. You make your own luck
Don’t get me wrong, I fully appreciate some people are more privileged than others – we all know that well connected person who got work experience with their dad’s best mate. However, you can make your own luck sometimes. Like running to catch the bus versus watching it drive slowly past, you have the power to make the best out of every situation. This can be applied to the application process and during your time on placement. Do your research on the company, read their blogs, check out their social media and read up on their clients – information is power! Ask friends and family to do dummy interviews with you, and take advantage of all the great resources university has on offer to make sure you are as prepared as you can be. If you’ve done all you can, you won’t need luck! Equally, whilst on placement you wont be babied. You’ll be welcomed into the team, and shown the ropes initially, but it’s not like school anymore. Want to get involved in that exciting project? Ask! Think your idea should be considered for the new creative piece? Say! Opportunities will not always fall into your lap so you have to be prepared to make them for yourself. If you go that extra mile, sooner or later your hard work will pay off.
4. Authenticity and honesty are key
The big wide world of work can be an intimidating place. The phrase ‘office politics’ exists for a reason, and interactions with clients and customers can be testing at times too. In the era of fake-news and fake people, the most endearing quality you can possess in this day and age is to be yourself. Don’t try to conform to the norm to impress your new boss or work colleagues. If you have a different idea, don’t be afraid to speak up! Voicing new ideas, and sticking by them will gain you greater respect in the work place than by simply being a yes man. You’ll also reap the rewards if your ideas are a success. Honesty can go a long way too. If you pretend you understand everything when you don’t, will you learn anything? No. A placement is an opportunity to be exposed to new things and learn new skills – you’re not expected to have them already! If you don’t understand something, be inquisitive, be honest and say. If you’re struggling, or finding something too easy, even if you’re running late for work – it’s always best to be honest.
So, there you have it. Mum and Dad are right – placements are a wonderful opportunity to gain experience in an industry that interests you. They also offer so much more: the opportunity to make new friends, see new places, try new things and realise your own potential (cliché).
Are you in the process of applying for a placement? Are you already in the midst of one? Let me know at @EllenAtNotch
Progress for patients with Parkinson’s diseaseRead More
On April 11th this year, World Parkinson’s Day will mark 262 years since James Parkinson was born and 200 years since he published his essay ‘On the Shaking Palsy’, which led to an official recognition of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Today, it’s estimated that over 10 million people worldwide have PD. Despite widespread awareness of PD and its most common symptoms, scientists don’t know why PD develops, and there is no cure. As a result, treatment has been restricted mostly to drugs that ease the symptoms, and physiotherapy.
Researchers have been exploring PD extensively over the decades and are closer to understanding its underlying biology. These studies are leading to promising new drug treatments that are now entering clinical trials, as well as new possibilities for reversing PD by repairing patients’ brains. Here’s a quick summary of a few recent developments.
What is Parkinson’s?
PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. It causes nerve cells in parts of the brain that control movement to stop working and die off. In healthy brains, these neurons rely on the brain chemical, dopamine, to communicate with one another. Replacing the lost dopamine in PD patients’ brains has therefore been the focus of many treatments over the decades.
Although PD is a degenerative disease that is more common in older people, we now know it is not specifically a disease of old age: around five to ten per cent of PD patients are aged under 50. Currently, there are no biochemical tests for PD; diagnosis depends on observation of the patient by a clinical and/or neurological specialist.
Every patient’s experience of PD can be different, but common symptoms include tremors – especially in hands or fingers when the limbs are at rest, slowness of movement and stiff, rigid muscles. These effects can be painful as well as debilitating, and become progressively worse.
It’s a challenging disease to diagnose, predict and treat for several reasons. The speed at which the disease progresses and symptoms develop can vary from one patient to the next. Sometimes Parkinson’s is hereditary, but most of the time it’s not. More recently, scientists have discovered that Parkinson’s can also affect parts of the brain that don’t control movement, resulting in a variety of ‘non-motor’ effects that include mental illness such as depression.
Since the 1960s, PD patients have been prescribed drugs such as levodopa that increase dopamine in the brain. Such drugs help to improve patients’ mobility but are associated with unpleasant side effects that typically get worse over time and can contribute to the patient’s illness. It’s also common for patients on these drugs to experience sudden “off periods” when the treatments just stop working. In the long term, the side effects can seriously outweigh the benefits of the treatment and there is an urgent need for more effective drugs.
Finding new drug treatments
In recent years, scientists have learned more about the biology of Parkinson’s and how it causes nerve cells to malfunction. Researchers have been particularly interested in Lewy bodies, which are clumps of proteins that typically appear in the affected brain cells of PD patients. One of the main components of Lewy bodies is alpha-synuclein, and a number of experiments have shown that alpha-synuclein could play a role in the development of PD. As a result, drug companies are now investigating whether new therapies targeting alpha-synuclein could prevent PD development, or at least slow down the disease progression in patients. Clinical trials have recently started for some of these potential new drugs and the Parkinson’s community is eagerly awaiting the results.
Replacing damaged brain cells
An alternative approach to PD treatment is to transplant new cells into the brain, to replace the dead cells. Several different methods have been tried over the past few decades, including transplants of dopamine-producing foetal cells and, more recently, stem cell grafts. In the late 1980s, researchers at Lund University in Sweden successfully transplanted dopaminergic foetal cells into the brains of 18 patients with Parkinson’s. The majority of the patients showed long-term improvements in their symptoms and some of them were able to stop taking levodopa.
One of the patients from the study died recently, 24 years after the transplant, and post-mortem analysis provided a detailed picture of what happened to the transplant in the patient’s brain. During his life, the patient had initially responded very well to the transplant: he was able to come off levodopa completely for a few years, then continued for ten years on a reduced drug dose. The patient then started to decline and, by 18 years after the transplant, the patient’s disease symptoms were similar to those shown before the study. In line with these behavioural observations, post-mortem analysis of the patient’s brain showed that the transplanted cells had grown into the damaged brain areas and successfully formed new nerve connections (re-innervation). However, signs of Parkinson’s disease, such as Lewy bodies, were found in a small proportion of the transplanted cells.
Further transplant studies have been carried out since the pioneering Lund study, but with mixed success. However, it has been generally accepted that cell replacement could be beneficial for PD, and researchers are now investigating modified approaches using stem cells that can develop into dopamine-producing neurons when transplanted into the brain.
Stem cells have attracted a lot of interest for repairing human brains and other organs in recent years. These immature cells have not yet differentiated into their final cell type (such as skin, muscle or brain cells) and, therefore, have important advantages for brain repair. Importantly, stem cells are much more widely available than foetal tissue because stem cells can come from a variety of sources, including adult humans, and can also be grown in the lab. A special type of inducible stem cell (iPSC) can be manipulated to grow into almost any type of cell that’s specialised for the brain or body region of interest. Scientists are now researching iPSCs as well as other types of stem cell for transplanting into Parkinson’s brains, and it’s expected that these will soon be ready for testing in PD patients.
Tailoring treatments to patients
Another area of research that could be beneficial for PD in the future is personalised medicine. This approach relies on collecting individual patients’ biological information and using that to decide the best course of treatment for the patient. For example, the data might include details about a patient’s immune system, their genes, and levels of hormones and other proteins or biomarkers. This can provide important information about the patient’s stage of disease and response to treatment. In turn, this helps with their prognosis and finding more tailored treatment regimes. Although much work has yet to be done before new Parkinson’s treatments become widely available, the personalised medicine approach could be particularly beneficial for PD given the variation seen in patients’ symptoms, disease progression and response to existing treatments.
What are your thoughts on future treatments for PD? Let me know Kate@Notch
Lindvall O, Rehncrona S, Brundin P et al. (1989). Arch Neurol 46(6): 615-631.
Lindvall O, Brundin P, Widner H et al. (1990). Science 247(4942): 574-577.
Stoker TB & Barker RA (2016). Regenerative Medicine 11(8): 778-786.
Parkinson’s Disease Foundation
The Michael J Fox Foundation
Snapchat, black boxes, struggling artists and a Nobel Prize in Economics – On the future of modern advertising (2/2)Read More
Last week, I outlined the rapidly changing features of the marketing landscape. We live in an era where we have all the information we could ever want on tap, and with people’s attention ever more difficult to acquire, modern marketing just isn’t keeping pace. The ‘content orientated’ approach has failed to remedy the general apathy towards marketing, except in certain cases that we will explore further in this article. If you haven’t read part 1, you can check it out here.
I stated previously that people inherently associate adverts and marketing with just ‘noise’, and that a lack of authenticity prevents people from engaging with the vast majority of the messaging out there. Why do I feel authenticity is important? Well, let’s look at some of the success stories out there, identify what they have in common, break down those ideas and suggest how you can apply them to your business.
How Boeing made a billion dollars selling planes to ordinary people
The aviation industry is one of incremental improvements and a relentless dedication to efficiency. As an example, 10 kilos saved on slightly thinner rivets made possible by material advances can amount to tens of thousands of pounds saved in fuel costs over the lifetime of a plane. This is the kind of information that carriers, the companies who buy aircraft from the manufacturers, want to hear about. For the last few decades, this is where the vast amount of messaging has been directed. This means that, save for aircraft that are particularly ‘iconic’ like the 747 Jumbo, A380 and the Concorde (which also happens to be the least profitable for both airliners and manufacturers), ordinary consumers simply are unaware about the differences between the myriad of other models out there. Unless you’re a plane geek, could you tell the difference between a 777 and an a350? Why would you even need to?
In the run-up to the launch of their newest 787 aircraft, Boeing tried something different. They put a concerted effort into a commercial awareness campaign pitched directly at the customers of airliners. Their new machine was not visually distinctive or physically impressive, so it had very little appeal in the way the aforementioned iconic planes did. Instead, they pressed the tangible benefits of travelling on their aircraft to consumers, they invited countless documentaries and news into their factories to explain their manufacturing processes, and they branded the machine the ever-so-slightly cheesy ‘Dreamliner’. They gave this huge B2B proposition a decidedly B2C face. This campaign was extremely successful, and pretty soon customers began inquiring with their favourite carriers about when they could fly in this new machine.
What Boeing had recognised is that awareness is just as important as directly appealing to the people who make the purchasing decisions. Decision makers in a B2B setting are still human, and the impact your brand has on a much wider scope of people can influence them in a very positive way. If you can sell the idea and engage a broader variety of people who aren’t even involved in the more mundane B2B calculations that go into the final purchasing decision, then you will appear all the more authentic. Not only does it convey enthusiasm for your product and forces you to articulate its benefits in creative ways, but if successful it will build a mythos. Getting your name out into the public consciousness pays itself off in spades when the person you are pitching to has already heard of you before you walk through the door.
Make art, not ads. Inform, don’t sell.
One of the key reasons why Boeing was so successful in this endeavour is because most of the marketing pitched at the public was not aimed at selling. There was no sense that it was KPI driven material, designed with financial performance in mind, but instead created as if the content itself had intrinsic value. In other words, much of what Boeing did was more like art than advertising.
One of the reasons why people are so turned off by typical advertising is because many talented marketers are not thinking like their clientele. They are under pressure to generate a high ROI, which has led to a significant impact, in ways both subtle and not-so-subtle, on their work. As we explored in the previous blog, people don’t engage with abstractions and statistics, they engage with a story and creative messaging, both of which appear completely inauthentic if they are done with transparent and negative associations of ‘the sale’. The experience of an ad or marketing message from the perspective of the customer is primarily an aesthetic one. If you want to create a positive association with your content, you must stop thinking in terms of ads and start thinking in terms of art and aesthetics. Capture the imagination of your audience.
The rise of influencers, many of whom are people who have gathered a large following from simply producing content online for their viewers, demonstrates that there are far better ways to create a compelling narrative than what most of the industry is currently capable of. Take for example a content creator like Linus Tech Tips, a tech advice channel that spends half the time producing paid for, sponsored ad spots. What companies like Intel have realised is that working with these types of people can pay significant dividends, and just by sponsoring whatever is produced, they earn very positive, credible exposure. The next step is to move from simply sponsoring and buying influencers, to becoming one yourself.
The key is to allow creatives, whether they be in-house or influencers (who will often not work without), significant creative freedom and distance from business metrics like ROI. This is vitally important because it makes it more likely that the resulting content feels independent, intrinsically valuable, and most importantly, authentic.
The curious case of Denny’s Diner
Denny’s has about 1500 locations across the US and it boasts a follower count of 374,000. Burger King conversely has about 7000 locations and has 1.5 million followers. With that in mind, note the significantly diverging engagement figures of Denny’s vs the much larger Burger King. With a fifth of the followers, Denny’s regularly gets over 10 times the engagement. What’s more is that they do not pay Twitter to place their tweets in others’ timelines (like Burger King does for its promotions), instead they rely on the strength of their content and word of mouth. Their social media marketing is so strong that other people will actively spread it for them, and although most of what they produce is related to their business (to great comedic effect I might add), it never pushes the sell. It comes across as genuine and authentic, not crafted in a corporate environment that most people just can’t, or don’t, want to identify with.
So humour is a tool that one particular consumer-orientated company is using, what could a large B2B firm possibly learn from something like that? The broader point of the Denny’s example is that intrinsically valuable content is useful for building a broad base of engagement. This will then have a positive influence on your core business through heightened awareness and a more pervasive narrative. Even if your product is not something that might be considered conventionally ‘sexy’ like a jetliner, there are alternative ways for these types of companies to still get their faces out there. Doing things like sponsoring competitions, particularly at the secondary and tertiary education level, will generate important name recognition in the years to come. Creating high quality content which explains the innovation and relevance of what you do, and delves into the various applications it has, will generate powerful engagement if done correctly. Just look at a company like Apple go into exhaustive detail about its anodisation process. Most people have a reason for why they do what they do, chances are good that you fell in love with the field at some point. There is always a story to tell, you just need to find the right way to tell it.
Build yourself a black box
If you’ve ever been on a commercial aircraft, maybe even the previously mentioned Boeing Dreamliner, you’ll know that your tray table must be stowed and your seat upright for takeoff and landing. You have to watch the same safety video every time and, if you’re a frequent flier, you probably could operate one of those weird yellow oxygen masks in the dark. That said, each and every one of those routine operations has been borne out of an ingrained sense of learning in the aviation industry. Every safety procedure is there because of a previous failure or accident. This is because everything is recorded and measured, in the form of a piece of crash-proof hardware called the ‘black box’.
In his book ‘Black Box Thinking’, the author Matthew Syed goes into deep detail about how the practices of the aviation industry are relevant to almost every field. He argues that to think in ‘black box’ terms is to meticulously record and learn, to set up ‘feedback loops’ where the impact of each decision can be measured and future actions can be modified by the resultant learning. In marketing, this means heavily utilising analytics to ensure your goals are reached, but also by refining creative processes. This might seem implicitly contradictory to my previous statements about the need for creativity and breaking free from the constraints imposed on authentic messaging by business metrics, but here this is not the case. What I am arguing is that the goals of the messaging must be different from purely business metrics and not that all metrics are worthless. We are able to appreciate how good the likes of Denny’s and Boeing’s efforts are in part because we are able to measure their success. We are just using more than straightforward KPIs as a metric.
In practice, this strategy is about allowing for explosive outbursts of creativity in your marketing and messaging. After this, you gradually sharpen and refine them into a honed representation of your brand or product. It’s about establishing a solid feedback mechanism so you aren’t just wandering in the dark with your ideas, but using a variety of performance metrics to measure their impact. Crucially, this cannot happen at the cost of the ‘human touch’ that makes something relatable or engaging.
Instituting a culture of creativity
Creativity, or more specifically originality, is a difficult thing. It is a function of many things; the right environment, challenging work, an emphasis on approaching problems differently, and everybody needing slightly different stimuli in order to achieve their best output. The key to generating compelling, authentic content is to build a culture and ethos that actively values original thinking. What gets people excited to go to work in the morning is not the prospect of their pay cheque, but an overarching goal. Whether it be Steve Jobs proclaiming he wants to ‘put a ding in the universe’, or Skype ‘disrupting through innovation’. This just isn’t about creating a meaningful product of service, instead it is part of the direction for the company as a whole, including marketing and advertising. Ensuring you don’t define this purpose from the top down is also the key to some of the biggest success stories of the 21st century. By allowing this purpose to be shared and contributed to by everyone is vital to establishing a cohesive culture.
There are concrete, solid changes you can make to encourage this type of thinking. One company, Atlassian, gives their employees one day at the end of each month to work on anything they wanted to, with anyone they wanted and anywhere they wanted, with the only rule being that they show the company what they did at the end of the day in a party-like atmosphere. What they discovered is that more software bugs were fixed in that one day than in an entire month. This is not something to be reserved for creatives either, everyone has probably had an idea about how they might improve their work or some other aspect of the company, but has not had the opportunity to try. Even if they don’t succeed, they tried and learned something, which is valuable experience. There are countless more examples of this type of practice bringing in great results.
Another important aspect of creativity is conflict. Creativity flourishes when it is given parameters to work with and around. For example, research shows that mind-mapping is a wholly inadequate way of finding solutions to problems as a group because of the social biases in the workplace tend to compel people to agree with one another and not challenge assumptions. Instead, one of the most effective methods is to allow people to bring their solutions to the table, instruct the group to explicitly find problems with the solution, and then work together to fix them.
Doing this right takes a lot of institutional learning and experience, and will not necessarily yield results right away; building a culture takes time. But done correctly, your content marketing will be authentic enough to be appreciated as intrinsically valuable. This translates into a positive public narrative about your company, which will ensure that your customers, whether they be consumers or other businesses, will want to buy your products or work with you.
Thanks for reading. What are your thoughts? Let me know at @Notchcom